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Environmental Geology ( GHT 402 ) – 2013


Department of Geology
University of Dhaka
‘Fourth -Year B.S. Honor’s Course -Final Examination 2013
Subject: Geology
Course: GHT 402 Course Name: Environmental Geology
Subjective Part
Full marks 25 Time 2 Hours

The figure at the right margin indicates full marks. Answer any five of the following questions. Draw suitable sketches and diagrams wherever necessary.

1.
a) Show in a flow chart the typical unit operations and steps in the composting of the solid waste. 1.0
b) What are environmental factors affecting composting? 0.5
c) Point out the roles of moisture content for composting in subtropical region of the world. 1.5
d) Determine the energy content (kj/kg) of a typical sample of municipal solid waste of 100 kg with the average composition of food waste 32.5%, paper 35%, newsprint 5%, cardboard 4%, rubber 0.5%, plastic 3%, PVC 0.5%, loather 0.5%, textile 3%, yard waste 13%, and wood 3%. 2.0
Table 1. Analysis of SW (% by weight on dry basis)

Component Carbon

(C)

Hydrogen

(H)

Oxygen

(O)

Nitrogen

(N)

Sulphur

(S)

Ash

(A)

Food waste 49.1 6.6 37.6 1.7 0.2 4.8
Paper 43.4 5.8 44.3 0.3 0.2 6.1
Newsprint 49.1 6.1 43.0 0.1 0.2 1.5
Cardboard 44.0 5.9 44.6 0.3 0.2 5.0
Rubber 77.8 10.4 2.0 9.8
Plastic 60.0 7.0 23.0 10.0
PVC 45.2 5.6 1.6 0.1 0.1 47.4
Leather 42.0 5.3 22.8 6.0 1.0 22.9
Textile 55.0 6.5 31.2 4.5 0.2 2.6
Yard waste 48.7 6.3 37.9 3.0 0.3 3.8
Wood 50.5 6.0 42.4 0.2 0.1 0.8

2.
a) What are the semi -empirical and empirical equations followed in Bangladesh? 0.5
b) State the difference between aerobic and anaerobic decomposition. 1.0
c) What do you mean by hazardous waste? Point out the possible sources of hazardous wastes in Bangladesh. 1.5
d) Estimate the amount of gas produced from the organic fraction of MSW under anaerobic conditions. Estimate the total theoretical amount of gas that would be produced under anaerobic conditions in a sanitary landfill per unit weight of solid waste. Given that the chemical formulae of typical waste are as follows:
Without Water: C60.0 H94.3 O37.8 N
With water: C60.0 H56.3 069.1N, also given that the total weight of organic material in 100 lb of solid wastes is equal 10 79.5 lb including moisture. 2.0

3.
a) Describe the environmental effects and public health aspects related to solid and hazardous waste management. 1.5
b) What are the basic principles of EIA? 1.0
c) Point out and discuss over the landfill planning and design geo-factors. 1.0
d) What are the impact categories followed in impact assessment in Bangladesh? How can GoB ensure implementation of Environmental laws? 1.5

4.
a) Point out the typical environmental impacts of a coal mine operation and its possible mitigation options. 2.0
b) Describe various types of flood and their causes. 1.0
c) Give a brief account of flood control and mitigation approaches taken in Bangladesh. 0.5
d) What types of hazards are responsible for vulnerabilities of the coastal land in Bangladesh? Explain the effects of any one of them. 1.5

5.
a) Distinguish between shallow landslide and deep-seated landslide. 1.0
b) Write down the name of various types of volcano and explain any one of them. 1.0
c) Show the comparison of magnitude, intensity, and acceleration of Mercalli scale in a chart. 1.0
d) What are the hazards associated with earthquakes? 1.0
e) What types of hazard are responsible for vulnerabilities of the coastal land in Bangladesh? Explain the effects of any one of them. 1.0

6. Write short notes on the following: 1.25 x 4 = 5.0
a) Earthquake zonation in Bangladesh
b) Community participation in solid waste management
c) Major causes of deforestation
d) EMP in water resource project

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